Clinical Sports Medicine International
 The Journal Of All Movement Related Medical Topics In Health & Disease
CSMI 2013

Influence of oral hygiene and health on oral malodour

Antina Schulze, DDS.2, Christoph Pökel3,  Martin Busse, MD1

General Outpatient Ambulance1 and Sports Dentistry2 of the Institute of Sports Medicine, University of Leipzig
(1Director: Prof. M.W. Busse, MD 2Head: A. Schulze, DDS)


Schulze A, Busse M. Influence of oral hygiene and health on oral malodour. Clinical Sports Medicine International (CSMI) 2013, 6(1): 14-17.

Objective: To assess the influence of oral health and lifestyle on the prevalence of oral malodour among university students in consideration of gender differences. Halitosis may indicate gingivitis which is a precursor of periodontits and possible whole body inflammation. This in turn may increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and decrease performance.

Materials and methods: 30 female and 27 male students underwent a clinical oral examination and completed an oral hygiene and halitosis self-questionnaire. Screening periodontal parameters included the gingivitis (GI), papillary bleeding (PBI) and visible plaque (VPI) index, periodontal screening and recording (PSR), probing pocket depth (PPD). Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and specific anthropometric data were measured. Halitosis was assessed with Halimeter (RH-17) which determines the concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds in expired breath.

Results: The results highlight the influence of oral self-care and lifestyle on malodour. Oral malodour occured in 42% students (219.25±188.80 ppb) and corresponded with the incidence of insufficient oral hygiene und gingivitis as preconditions for future periodontitis already in this age. Score higher 100 ppb are equal to an unpleasant or offensive odor emanating from the breath. Halimeter measurement showed no significant gender difference (female: 149.20±171.46 ppb, male: 124.38±98.4 ppb). 4 students had a score > 250 ppb (517±346.64 ppb).

Conclusion: In media special attention is payed on youth generation concerning intense oral and dental hygiene. This  study indicated a high incidence of oral malodour and a low level oral hygiene and in students in the mid-20 years. Public awareness, diagnosis and treatment of malodour are very important. Malodour can have a distressing effect and the affected person may avoid socialising and is primilary oral health warning.

Keywords: Halitosis, periodontal disease, oral hygiene, oral malodour