Clinical Sports Medicine International
 The Journal Of All Movement Related Medical Topics In Health & Disease
CSMI 2014

The influence of cardiac and hematological parameters on the maximal oxygen uptake in healthy and athletic male adults.

Falz R1, Knaier R1,2, Hoppe S1, Busse M1

1 Institute of Sports Medicine, University of Leipzig (Prof. M. Busse, MD)

2 Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Division of Sports and Exercise Medicine, University of Basel (Prof. Dr. Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss)


Falz R, Knaier R, Hoppe S, Busse M. The influence of cardiac and hematological parameters on the maximal oxygen uptake in healthy and athletic male adults. Clinical Sports Medicine International (CSMI) 2014, 7(1): 1-8.

Purpose: The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and therefore the endurance performance seem to be dependent on cardiac and hematological parameters. The limitation by ventilation, however, was subject of only few researches. The aim of this study is the direct measurement of, if possible, all parameters that could influence the VO2max and to interrelate them with each other. Here, the focus is on the parameters blood volume (BV), total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) and the cardiac output per minute (CO). So far, these parameters have rarely been measured directly.

Materials and methods: 30 healthy and athletic male adults were examined. On one day, sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected followed by a stress test (cycle ergometer – semi-recumbent) with spirometry, impedance cardiography and lactate diagnostics. On a second day, tHb-mass and BV were determined with a modified carbon monoxide rebreathing method.

Results: A multiple linear regression (stepwise selection, backward elimination) was carried out. The parameters stroke volumemax, (SVmax), heart frequenzmax (HFmax) and atrerio-venous oxygen difference (avDO2) show the best model (r2=.948) to determine the VO2max. In the absolute parameters a high correlation existed between the VO2max and the maximum performance (r=.722), but the VO2max did not correlate with either the maximum cardiac output (r=.322), the maximum stroke volume (r=.286) the maximum heart rate (r=.207), the BV (r=.160), the atrerio-venous oxygen difference (r=.198) or the tHbmass (r=.346). Moderate significant correlations existed between the VO2max by body weight and cardiac output by body weight (r=.484), the maximum stroke volume by body weight (r=.373) and the hemoglobin mass by body weight (r=.386). The BV and the VO2max did not correlate with each other. Interindividual comparisons showed differences in the cardiac and hematological parameters of subjects with the same performance.

Conclusion: References mention high correlations between the COmax, the SVmax, the BV and the tHb-mass, but these correlations cannot be demonstrated in a homogenous study population. The dependence of VO2max on cardiac and hematological parameters, however, can be shown by summation of all the single influences. The interindividual comparisons showed that some of the subjects adapt other parameters more to compensate deficits in cardiac and hematological parameters.

Keywords: Endurance performance, hemoglobin mass, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, body composition



To read the whole article please click here. (You need Adobe Reader)