Clinical Sports Medicine International
 The Journal Of All Movement Related Medical Topics In Health & Disease
CSMI 2015

Oral hygiene and dental health as part of an occupational health examination

Schulze A1, Pökel Ch2, Busse M2,3

General Outpatient Ambulance1 and Sports Dentistry2 of the Institute of Sports Medicine, University of Leipzig
(1Director: Prof. M.W. Busse, MD 2Head: A. Schulze, DDS)


Schulze A, Pökel Ch, Busse M. Oral hygiene and dental health as part of a workplace health examination. Clinical Sports Medicine International (CSMI) 2015, 8: 6-11

Purpose: Workplace health promotion becomes more and more important, especially concerning nutrition, physical activity and exercises but also social components. However, dental health is often not taken under consideration, although oral health may influence work efficiency and life quality. Such mechanisms could be pain, effects on nutrition and mental wellbeing but also increased systemic inflammatory stress. Aim of the examination was to determine the overall condition and the perception of oral health in terms of introducing components for the promotion of oral health but also for the establishment of long-term oral hygiene programs.

Materials and methods: 89 persons from a real estate management company volunteered on the health examination (57 women at an average age of 48.2 ± 9.4 years and 32 men at an average age of 45.1 ± 8.8 years). The participants underwent a general physical examination and filled out questionnaires about their physical activity, stress level, oral hygiene and state of health. Out of a total of 89 participants, 49 women and 30 men received an oral health examination during which the following parameters were determined: Gingival Index according to Löe and Silness (GI), visible Plaque Index (PI), periodontal probe depths, Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR), Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI), number of teeth and mobility grade. All participants received their diagnosis, dental hygiene instructions and a group presentation about the results and the consequences of chronic inflammatory stress and its consequences for systemic diseases. A follow-up examination was performed 6.5 months later.

Results:Oral hygiene: 56 % of the female participants and only 12 % of the male participants used dental floss for cleaning interdental spaces. Women cleaned their tongue (26 %) and used mouthwash solution (39 %) twice as often as men. There were no differences in the frequency of daily tooth cleaning (twice per day), the determination of coating of the tongue (14 % in women and 18 % in men) and gingival bleeding (26 % in women and 24 % in men). Oral health: The average number of teeth was 26.4 ± 4.3 in women, and 27.3 ± 4.9 in men. Women had significantly less calculus (p < 0.02) and visible plaque (PI) (p < 0.02) and the number of teeth with bleeding index 3 was also significantly lower (p < 0.04). Women used dental floss markedly more often than men (p < 0.0001). Periodontitis was diagnosed in 11 women (22.4 %), 5 of them were already informed about it by their family dentist, in comparison to one of 30 men who was not previously informed. 21 women underwent a follow-up and showed a highly significant improvement of their gingivitis (GI: p < 0.004), papillary bleeding grade 2 (PBI 2: p < 0.002) and a decreased plaque amount (PI: p < 0.04). Only 8 men came to the follow-up examination, so a comparison was not possible.

Conclusion: The occupational oral health examination showed a better behavior towards oral hygiene in the 49 female participants with significantly less plaque and calculus and a lower papillary bleeding index of 3. However, in 22.4 % (n = 9) periodontitis was diagnosed and only half of them have already been informed about it by their family dentist. In one of the 30 male participants periodontitis was newly detected. Females showed a highly improved oral health in the follow-up examination, whereas only 8 men participated on the follow-up, making a comparison impossible.

Keywords: Oral health, oral hygiene, periodontitis, company health examination, company health scheme